The piano is an instrument, and for an instrument to work, especially as effectively as a piano, the materials used in the production need to reviewed. I chose it because I love to play the piano. Since I play it, it affects my life by the music it produces.
Composition of ...
There are many types of woods used in the piano, which are maple, spruce, basswood, pearwood, and ebony (which may not be used in pianos today). The part of the tree trunk used is the heartwood, for it has less moisture and is harder than sapwood. Heartwood is composed of sugars (C6O12H6), dead xylem cells, dyes, oils, resins, phenols, and terpenes. Ebony, however, is a little bit different, for it has a higher silica content (SiO2). This makes the ebony more dense than water. Also, the white keys were originally made of ivory, typically from elephants. Ivory is primarily made of dentin and cementum. Dentin is made of 70% inorganic material, hydroxylapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)] and calcium phosphate [Ca3O8P2], along with 30% of collagen [C2H5NOC5H9NOC5H10NO2]. Cementum is made of 45% of inorganic material, which is mainly hydroxylapatite along with a little bit of calcium. It is also made of 33% organic material and 22% water. The copper wire is made of, well, copper. Carbon steel is an alloy of less than 1% of carbon and around 99% of iron. The cast iron plate used in pianos is made of primarily iron.
Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components
*Ivory and ebony are both naturally occurring, albeit in an elephant or a tree. The chemistry and the chemical processes inside the living things causes the ivory or the ebony to be created. Ivory has a similar structure to bone. However, ivory doesn’t have blood vessels, and this makes it more dense. Similarly, ebony is a hardwood, and as xylem cells die and the tree grows, the heartwood part of the tree trunk is made. Due to the higher content of silica in ebony, it also is very dense. Dense enough that it sinks in water.
*High carbon steel is an alloy, and alloys are part of chemistry. An alloy is created when two or more elements, at least one being a metal, are melted together to change their chemical and physical properties. Iron alone is strong, but with the added carbon, it becomes stronger. The process of drawing the copper wire causes it to become brittle, unlike the copper wires we have come to know and love. When heat is added to it through the annealing process, the copper can crystallize and become malleable enough to be put in coils around the high carbon steel on the left of the piano.
*The end product of the piano is man-made. There are no real chemical processes in the actual producing of it, but everything inside of the piano has had a chemical process or a lot of chemical processes to help create the material that makes up the musically inclined piano.
Other string instruments, like the harp, are mentioned even back in the Bible. The harpsichord became the most popular instrument in the 17th century, one of the first instruments with keys and strings. Next came the dulcimer and the clavichord, with the latter leading to the pianoforte, long for piano.
Bartolomeo di Francesco Cristofori, a harpsichord maker, is credited with creating the piano by 1700. The difference between the soft clavichord and the loud harpsichord with the piano was the range of sound that the instrument could be. The piano could, and can be, as soft or as loud as needs be. As improvements continued, the structure of the modern piano came to be by the mid-nineteenth century.
Although the piano is definitely more physics than chemistry, there is still chemistry in it.
*a little bit of what it’s made of
*list of raw materials
*process of how it’s made
*how sound is made
*components (strings, wood, etc)
*variables on sound
*different parts of piano
*detailed descriptions the how
*how pianos work
*parts of the piano and their definitions
*the frequency of sound from piano
*the number of strings per key
*a little on how it works
*amount of carbon and iron in high-carbon steel
*how a piano works
*a detailed description of everything inside the piano
*how carbon steel is formed
*how copper is made into wires
*the different types of ivory
*commercial uses of ivory (like piano keys)
*properties of ivory
*composition of elephant ivory
*composition of dentin
*chemical formula for collagen
*chemical formula for calcium phosphate
*chemical formula for hydroxylapatite
*composition of heartwood
*talks about cementum and what’s inside of it
*the pros of ivory keys
*the atomic structure of carbon steel
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