What happens when you lie? Do you start to sweat or get a little nervous? Does your heart begin to beat a little faster? Lying is the act of being deceptive or untruthful. It has become apart of everyday life for most people, with the average person telling at least one lie a day. But few people know what happens inside their body when they lie and how that reaction relates to chemistry.
I chose to do my project on the Chemistry of Lying because lying is something that humans encounter on a daily basis. I wanted to know what happened inside the body when you lie and what causes your heart to beat faster or that nervous feeling in your stomach. Through my research, I also hoped to understand what drives people to lie so frequently. It was an interesting and rather abstract topic that I had not thought much about in the past.With deception occurring in thirty percent of one-on-one conversations a person has in a week, it is easy to see how lying affects most people's lives. For me personally, one of my biggest pet peeves is being lied to. Lying is not something that can be avoided easily but knowing more about the hows and whys of lying will hopefully help us to understand we are so prone to deceiving one another.
Composition of ...
Catecholamines are the main hormones released in the body when you lie because these hormones are responsible for reactions that spawn from stress. All catecholamines contain a main catechol group, C6 H4(OH)2 .
The main catecholamines are:
Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components
The two main components of lying are the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are two hormones that are naturally produced within the body through a series of reactions. Both derive from the same two amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, which are the building blocks for catecholamines. The process from the creation of these two hormones is this:
Tyrosine is oxidized into L-DOPA; oxidation is a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance is in the presence of oxygen. From there, L-DOPA is decarboxylated into dopamine; decarboxylations is the chemical reaction that removes carboxyl group, COOH, and results in the release of carbon dioxide. Dopamine is then oxidized into norepinephrine, and norepinephrine is methylated into epinephrine. Methylation is the substitution of an atom or group by a methyl group, CH3.
The same process occurs during the creation of norepinephrine, but it stops before methylation occurs.
Both of these hormones can be created synthetically in the lab for pharmaceutical purposes. The process used to artificially create these hormones is extremely similar to that of which occurs inside the body, but production may vary by company and/or the medication’s purpose. One common example of the medical use of epinephrine is in the Epipen.These two hormones do not result in the man-made production of lying. They are just key factors in the emotions that are felt while lying. These two hormones, individually, however can result in man-made products like medication.
Lying is a very common occurrence in our everyday lives, and so naturally we as humans seek to know the truth. There are very few known ways of detecting whether someone is lying, and one of those ways is through the use of polygraph testing. A polygraph measures the reactions that come from your sympathetic nervous system like blood pressure and pulse. This system works based on the belief that your body undergoes stress and anxiety when you lie, which would result in the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Polygraphs tests are not often considered a reliable source of lie detection because there are ways for people to outsmart the machine and control their nerves while lying. This would be the reasoning behind why polygraph testing is not frequently used in a court of law.
Limbic system is the center of the brain that controls anxiety and triggers the subconscious reactions that happen when someone lies
Different parts of the brain are activated when you lie, which may not be used when telling the truth
This source presents many statistics and facts, as well as explaining the gestures that our bodies due when we lie
pathologic liars have more white matter in their prefrontal lobes-could mean that this gives these people the tools to be more deceitful
moral decisions are made using the prefrontal lobe
gray matter- more awareness of morality, white matter- tool to ignore morality
rather inconclusive study but good start in the study of gray vs white matter
various facts about lying
video discussing the tell tale signs that someone is lying
what happens in the grey matter of the brain
lying stimulates 3 different sections of the brain
catecholamines are the hormones released in response to stress
catecholamines- chemical released when you lie (neurotransmitters)
when you are stressed, your body releases catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine)
these activate area in brain calle amygdala, which triggers emotional response
suppress activity in front of brain that control rational thought, concentration, and short term memory
epinephrine and norepinephrine info
composition of phenylalanine amino acid
composition of tyrosine amino acid
composition of a methyl group
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