The Chemistry of the Movement of Dance

Introduction

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Dance has been apart of every culture and societies since the world began. There are traces of dance that lead back to Egypt when it was being used for rituals. Another example of dance in our history is in Greece, it was called Dionysiac Dances. This is very similar to our “Raves” today where there is very loud music with a pounding rhythm which causes a person’s pulse to start racing and induce a mood frenzied experience. In 16th and 17th century France, the favorite form of entertainment was dance which began with the Renaissance.  I chose to do the movement of dance because dance has been a huge part of my life. I was curious to find out the chemistry behind why dance has such a positive impact on a person's life. My life would not be the same without dance. The reason that I dance is because it’s my way of escaping my everyday life and it allows me to release stress.

Composition of ...

  • Neurotransmitters

    • Serotonin (C10H12N2O)

      • MAOA

      • Aldehyde

        • -CHO functional group

    • Dopamine (C8H11NO2)

      • Catechol

    • Sensory input

    • Vestibular Organs

    • Motor Output


Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

Dancing can benefit people’s lives in many ways…

It helps improve their respiratory system, increase in muscle tone and strength , improved social skills, mental capability and self-esteem/confidence levels will rise and helps people get  stronger bones. Serotonin is produced after a long cardio workout. Dance is an example of this because the minimum length of a dance class is 45 minutes. As a dancer you may have dance up to 6 days a week with at least 3 hours of dance a night. When the Serotonin is released it helps decrease depression and hostility. Dopamine improves your long-term memory and your mood. It helps to stimulate a person's high pleasurable feelings and that is why there is a “runner's high.” When a person goes through a high intensity workout, such as dance, the levels of serotonin and dopamine are increased after at least 30 minutes of the exercise.


Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter released by the brain the helps humans and animals with many roles in their lives. It is used a natural medication for the nervous system. It is also needed in some brain cells which helps with parkinson's disease. As Parkinson's disease develops, it can lead to a destruction in the person's divergent thinking process. So they used improvised dance that helped improve their divergent thinking skills. It is produced in the brain, blood vessels, kidneys, digestive system and the nervous system.



Serotonin acts as a chemical that helps to relay signals to one area of the brain to another part.

It  is produced in a unique biochemical conversion process, which begins with tryptophan. Tryptophan hydroxylase combine with tryptophan producing 5-hydroxylase tryptophan, also known as Serotonin. There are biochemical glitches that can happen in the brain where tryptophan is not produced. This causes there to be a shortage of serotonin and it can lead to depression. As well as a major anxiety attack, panic, excessive anger and OCD.


Chemistry's Role

Serotonin (C10H12N2O) is made up of MAOA and Aldehyde. MAOA is a monoamine oxidase, which is a catalyst that is used to remove an amine group from a molecule. Aldehyde is an organic compound that has a function containing a formyl group that is bonded to a R group, also known as a side chain.  Dopamine (C8H11NO2) has Catechol, this chemical acts as a neuromodulators in the central nervous system and as hormones throughout the blood system. It is what increases your heart rate during a workout and helps with a general reaction in your nervous system.



Background Research

A proper balance system allows people to see clearly while moving. It helps us identify where we are in relation to the atmosphere we are in. The balance system is also used to help determine the direction we’re going, how fast we’re going and make an immediate decision in our brain to maintain posture and stability while dancing. Balance is achieved through the body using a group of sensorimotor control systems. These systems include sight, proprioception (touch), and the vestibular system. The vestibular system includes motion, equilibrium, spatial orientation. Also, the motor system is crucial to the balance during dance. The receptors in the eye that help us “spot” or tell us where we are in relation to the room are called rods and cones. These are located in the retina of the eye. When these rods and cones are struck with light, impulses are sent to the brain to show the brain where we are in relation to other objects around us.


Information from the muscles, skin and joints include sensory receptors that are sensitive to stretching and pressure. During any movement of the body (legs, arms or any other body parts) our sensory receptors respond with sending pulses to the brain. Information sent to the brain from the vestibular system come from the inner ear parts. These inner ear parts are the utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals. The utricle and saccule detect any sense of a shift in gravity or linear movement. Semicircular canals detect rotational movement, are filled with a fluid called endolymph. While doing a turn, jump, kick, or any other movement while dancing, the endolymph fluid stays behind due to inertia and releases pressure against the canals sensory receptors. This sends a message to a brain saying there is movement occurring. The brain sends out transmitted signals from the sensory receptors to the brain stems and then into the muscle pathways. This is called facilitation. This is the enhancement of the response of a neuron to follow stimulation Synaptic reorganization, the synapse or synapses of nerve cells. Synaptic reorganization is what makes it easier for dancers to do movements they have learned over a period of time. Also, the cerebellum is a very important part of the balance system. Which, as I stated before, is very important to dance. The cerebellum makes postural adjustments in order for the body to maintain balance. From the input given by the vestibular receptors and proprioceptors, the brain is able to send commands to the motor neurons to make up for the shifts in the body's position.


Resources

http://vestibular.org/understanding-vestibular-disorder/human-balance-system

A proper balance system allows people to see clearly while moving. It helps us identify where we are in relation to the atmosphere we are in. The balance system also used to help determine the direction we’re going, how fast we’re going and make an immediate decision in our brain to maintain posture and stability

http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s3/chapter05.html

The cerebellum makes postural adjustments in order for the body to maintain balance.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200703/dance-therapy-spin-control

The studies show that exerting one's self for long periods of time causes the brain to release neurotransmitters and proteins are produced within brain cells.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-athletes-way/201310/why-is-dancing-so-good-your-brain

Dancing helps improve the brain's way of functioning on a variety of levels. It shows how different types of dance helps dancers achieve their highest performance by blending basic cognition with muscle memory and proprioception held in the cerebellum.

http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/01/learining-empathy-through-dance/426498/

This was a study working with children in underserved communities and the end of 20 classes, 66 percent increase in acceptance of others. While 81 percent of others said they treated others with more respect. In year 1 of the study, 95 percent of teachers reported their students improved cooperative and collaborative skills.

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2011/jul/31/peter-lovatt-dance-problem-solving

Studies shows that where they have had people in the lab dancing and they have had people problem solving, this helps them with divergent thinking (multiple answers to a problem).

http://www.azdancecoalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/ndeo_Final_Evidence_Report_2013.pdf

In an arts/integrated school in New Jersey, higher GPAs were found in dancers compared to non dancers.

http://www.m.webmd.com/depression/guide/exercise-depression

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/dance-health-benefits

Dancing can benefit people’s lives in many ways…

Helps improve their respiratory system

Increase in muscle tone and strength

Improved social skills, mental capability and self-esteem/confidence levels will rise

Stronger bones  

http://www.news-medical.net/health/Dopamine-Functions.aspx

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter released by the brain the helps humans and animals with many roles in their lives.

http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Dopamine.aspx

          Dopamine is needed in some brain cells which helps with parkinson's disease.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine

http://www.webmd.com/depression/features/serotonin

Serotonin is produced in a unique biochemical conversion process. It begins with tryptophan. Tryptophan hydroxylase combine with tryptophan producing 5-hydroxylase tryptophan, also known as Serotonin.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/251785-exercise-and-its-effects-on-serotonin-dopamine-levels/

Serotonin is produced after a long cardio workout. When a person goes through a high intensity workout, the levels of Serotonin and Dopamine are increased after at least 30 minutes of the exercise.

http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab82

Dance has been apart of every culture and societies since the world began. There are traces back to Egypt when it was being used for rituals. Another example of dance in our history is in Greece, it was called Dionysiac Dances. This is very similar to our “Raves” today where there is very loud music with a pounding rhythm which causes a person’s pulse to start racing and induce a mood frenzied experience. In 16th and 17th century France, the favourite form of entertainment was dance which began with the Renaissance.



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