The Chemistry of Golf Clubs

Introduction

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I wanted to find the chemistry of golf clubs and more on how they are made so that is why i picked it.I thought since i work at a golf course and I play golf this would be a great thing to research.


Composition of ...

WOODS:In the best brands of woods the main component is titanium(Ti) with some maraging metals and bimetals with tungsten inserts.(\W2o3) Graphite (6CO2)

 

IRONS:In the best irons it is 431 stainless steel,17-4ph stainless steel(FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4),bimetals and tungsten (W2O3) inserts.

 

PUTTERS:Most putters are made of carbon steel (FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4), and or stainless steel

l(FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4), it varies from brand to brand.


Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

The main compounds in a golf clubs is titanium. The use of titanium is smart because it is a strong metal but also lightweight at the same time.The titanium is used for the head of the golf club or the part that you hit the ball with.There is 4 parts to the head of a driver. There is a crown,skirt,sole and the face.The face is the part of the driver that makes contact with the ball,so it would have to be the strongest.To make the head of the club the 4 parts are welded together.The other main compound is graphite or steel. Both steel and graphite are used to make the shaft of the golf club.In drivers the most common type of shaft is graphite. Irons are a different story people with a slower swing speed would benefit more if they used a graphite shaft. And on the other hand people with faster swing speeds would benefit  more with steel shafts.

Chemistry's Role

Titanium is used in golf clubs mainly because its strength to weight ratio  is very good. To get titanium to its maximum strength it needs to be by reducing its ore.Unlike iron it can not be heated with carbon or it will produce TiC which is brittle.So they use chlorine and titanium(IV) TiCl4 and heat that up with sodium or magnesium.Titanium is made in a batch process where TiCl4 is heated with Mg or Na. The waste that is left behind is removed and the titanium that is left is put through a new process.If there is trace amounts of oxygen or nitrogen it makes the titanium brittle so this reaction has to be carried out in an argon atmosphere.Stainless steel is a steel that is protected from rusting.The steel is made without other elements, but when you add chromium,niobium and nickel it gives it the stainless part.It is the minimum of 12% of chromium that makes it stainless.The first step to making it is to melt the steel for 8 to 12 hours in intense heat.After that they roll it into many forms to help it keep shape.To make the steel softer it is heated to 900 to 1000 degrees fahrenheit then put into a ice bath at 35 degrees fahrenheit.The next step is to descale it and to do that it is put in a nitric hydrofluoric acid bath or the use of electricity with the help of phosphoric acid. After that step is done they move to cutting the steel with flames at great heat and the last step begins.This is where it is cleaned and grinded to a smooth finish.

Background Research

A golf club is the thing that you hit the golf ball with and it propels the ball in the air. Golf clubs can vary in many different ways like for instance there is the putter that is for using on the green only. Then there is the driver which is mainly used to hit off the tee box. There is many different parts of a club,there is the shaft which is made of steel or graphite.Next there is the club head that is made of many things like bimetals, tungsten,431 stainless steel.Last there is the grip which is the part we hold onto made of rubber.

Resources

http://www.pinemeadowgolf.com/golf-clubs-101/2-technical-specs

Components or what it is made of

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golf_club  History of golf clubs and background  

http://www.worldofchemicals.com/chemicals/chemical-properties/titanium.html

The type of metals it is made of

http://www.golfwrx.com/forums/topic/508539-what-kind-of-steels-are-used-in-putters-17-4-etc/

Components of a putter

http://www.chemistryexplained.com/St-Te/Steel.html formulas of the components

http://www.golf-components.com/titanium.html How titanium is made and the role that chemistry plays

https://www.thoughtco.com/why-stainless-steel-is-stainless-60226 How stainless steel is made stainless

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Stainless-Steel.html  


About the Author

Braxton Humphrey is a junior at Billings Senior High.I He is an avid golfer and loves to play the game.Braxton is on the Senior Varsity golf team and has lettered all three years and also finished top 5 at state thus fall.He also has two younger sisters and a older brother.








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