The Chemistry of Foundation Makeup

Introduction

YouTube Video

Foundation makeup is used almost everyday by thousands of girls around the world.Foundation is skin colored cosmetic used on the face and surrounding areas to create even skin tone and cover flaws. It can be oil based, alcohol based, powder based, water based, silicone based, or mineral based. However, the question is how is this possible? How can there be makeup that perfectly covers flaws and evens skin tone? The answer lies in chemistry. That is why I chose foundation as my project theme becaåuse I was curious to know what goes into something that I use almost everyday.
Composition of ...

The composition of foundation makeup consists of a variety of different chemicals mixed together to form either powder, liquid, or oil to use on skin to cover flaws, and even skin tones. Some of these chemicals used include

  • titanium dioxide (TiO2)

  • Talc a.k.a.magnesium silicate (MgSIO4) or (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2)

  • metallic stearates (C17H35CO)

  • Lecithin (C42H82NO8P)

  • Sulfosuccinate (C20H37NaO7S)

  • Ethoxylated Sorbitan ester (C26H50O10)

  • Bentonite (Al2O34SiO2H2O)

  • Glycerin (C3H8O3)

  • PEG’s (C2nH4n+2On+1)

  • Stearic/oleic acid (C18H36O2)

  • BHT (C15H24O)

  • Parabens (CH3(C6H4(OH)COO)

  • Urea (CH4N2O)


Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

1.Talc:

  • How:formed via hydration and carbonation : 2 Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 3CO2 → Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 + 3 MgCO3 + 3 H2O

  • It is widely used in cosmetic products such as baby powder and adult body and facial powders, as well as in a number of other consumer products.

  • What: a mineral made up mainly of the elements magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. the softest mineral on earth. A common metamorphic mineral

  • Why: it absorbs moisture well and helps cut down on friction, making it useful for keeping skin dry and helping to prevent rashes.

  • Where: metamorphic belts that contain ultramafic rocks and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes. including the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western US, the western European Alps especially in Italy, and in the Himalayas.  

2.Titanium Dioxide

  • How: Ti(s) + O2(g) → TiO2(s)

  • What: a white unreactive solid that occurs naturally as the mineral rutile and is used extensively as a white pigment.


  • Naturally occurring found in 2 main forms: rutile and anatase


  • Why: odorless and absorbent

  • Mainly sourced from ilmenite ore

  • Rutile is the next most abundant and contains around 98% titanium dioxide in the ore. is found as a mineral in magmatic rocks and hydrothermal veins


Chemistry's Role

Chemistry plays a role by finding the perfect balance necessary for creating the prime mixture of ingredients to make the makeup. Both of the main components of foundation makeup, talc, and titanium dioxide, are naturally occurring in nature. Talc is mined from metamorphic belts and within whiteschist and blueschist metamorphic terranes, including the Franciscan Metamorphic Belt of the western US, the western European Alps especially in Italy, and in the Himalayas. And titanium dioxide is found as a mineral in magmatic rocks and hydrothermal veins. Foundation makeup is man made, and made by mixing the ingredients together to form the perfect texture and smoothness that is wanted (whether it be liquid, or powder).

Background Research

Different kinds include:

  • Liquid-pigment blending

  • Powder-skin covering and opaque

  • Polyol-  improve spreadibility, decrease drying rate, increase smoothness and creaminess

Oil -emulsification, spreadability, pigment dispersion and viscosity control.

Resources

"Science is So Sexy...: Chemicals in our Makeup - Part 1: Foundation." Science is So Sexy...: Chemicals in our Makeup - Part 1: Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.sciencesosexy.com/2011/10/chemicals-in-our-make-up-part-1.html>.

  • Explained the different types of makeup.

"Foundation makeup." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Apr. 2014. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundation_makeup>.

  • Gave history and general knowledge about my topic.

"The Makeup of Makeup: Decoding Foundation." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.webmd.com/beauty/makeup/decoding-foundation>.

  • Listed the different chemicals that go into making makeup.

"Chemicals in Cosmetics." Chemicals in Cosmetics. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.breastcancerfund.org/clear-science/environmental-breast-cancer-links/cosmetics/>

  • Confirmed the chemicals from the last website.

."You Have The Right To Know: 17 Chemicals To Avoid In Cosmetic And Personal Care Products." Collective Evolution RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.collective-evolution.com/2012/04/10/you-have-the-right-to-know-17-chemicals-to-avoid-in-cosmetic-and-personal-care-products/>.

  • Gave interesting facts about foundation, and the history of it.

"Chemical Reactions in Cosmetic Science." Chemical Reactions in Cosmetic Science. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://ch

  • Explained the reactions that go on when making makeup.

"Talc." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 June 2014. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talc>.emistscorner.com/chemical-reactions-in-cosmetic-science/>.

  • Gave general info about talc, one of the main components.

"Talcum Powder and Cancer." Talcum Powder and Cancer. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/athome/talcum-powder-and-cancer>.

  • Explained how talc can be potentially dangerous in foundation.

"natural organic makeup - Titanium Dioxide: Toxic or Safe?." natural organic makeup - Titanium Dioxide: Toxic or Safe?. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.organicmakeup.ca/ca/titaniumdioxide.asp>.

  • Said how titanium dioxide is used in makeup and how it can be harmful.

"Titanium." WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.webelements.com/titanium/chemistry.html>

  • gave general facts about the other main component, titanium dioxide.


About the Author

Peyton LaBeau is a junior at Billings Senior High. She is a varsity cheerleader, and has been cheering for 3 years. She did her chemistry of ... project on makeup because she was curious to learn about the chemicals that go into making a product she uses often.
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