The Chemistry of Powerade

Introduction

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Powerade is a sports drink manufactured and marketed by the Coca-Cola company. Powerade was first introduced to in US in 1988 it became the first official sports drink for the Olympic Games in Seoul. Powerade is commonly used by many athletes because it gives them the electrolytes and carbohydrates their body needs to perform well and keep their body hydrated at the same time. I chose Powerade to do my chemistry of because I wanted to learn about how they benefit you by drinking them. I commonly drink Powerade while I’m playing sports or just any time in general to quench my thirst. So by doing a research paper on Powerade I will learn the benefits or possibly the none benefits in Powerade along with what is truly in this sports drink.
Composition of ...
  • Sodium-Na

  • Potassium-K

  • Magnesium-Mg

  • Calcium-Ca

  • Iron-Fe

  • Citric Acid-C6H8O7


Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

  • Electrolytes

  • Carbohydrates

The two main ingredients in Powerade are electrolytes and carbohydrates. Electrolytes-are the ionized or ionizable constituents of a living cell, blood, or other organic matter. Electrolytes give the body the essential salts it needs, they help you retain your body to keep your body hydrated as well as maintaining your blood volume, sweat rate, and muscle blood flow. Without electrolytes your urinary output increases and you won’t be able to remain hydrated. Electrolytes are the minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes affect the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood pH, your muscle function, and other important processes. Electrolytes can be acids, bases, and salts. Carbohydrates-any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in living foods and living tissues and including sugars, starches, and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water 2:1 and typically can be broken down to release energy in the animal body. All the carbohydrates you take in are converted to glucose and stored in the muscles and liver. Having a good supply of carbohydrate is directly linked to how you perform when you train. Your body uses carbohydrates as it’s fuel to help your body perform. Carbohydrates are the main nutrients of the whole entire body. Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. They originated as products of photosynthesis , an endothermic reductive condensation of carbon dioxide requiring light energy and the pigment chlorophyll. The most common type of carbohydrates are glucose.


Chemistry's Role

Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbon is produced by the sun and stars carbon is C it’s atomic number is 6 and it is a nonmetal. Oxygen is produced by cyanobacteria, algae and plants by the energy they release. Oxygen is O it’s atomic number is 8 it’s the 3rd most abundant element on the universe and it is a reactive nonmetallic. Hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of methane or natural gas. Hydrogen is H its atomic number is 1 and it is created using this formula CH+H20---->CO+3H2 then CO+H20---->CO2+H2. Electrolytes are made up of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, phosphate, bicarbonate, and sulfate. Potassium is produced by the oxygen burning in the air its a natural element. Potassium is K it’s atomic number is 19 and its a alkali metal. Calcium is produced by the interior of the sun its a natural earth element. Calcium is Ca its atomic number is 20 and it’s a alkaline earth metal. Magnesium is produced by seawater its a naturally occurring earth element. Magnesium is Mg its atomic number is 12 and its a alkaline earth metal. Sodium is produced by thermal reduction of sodium carbonate. Sodium is Na its atomic number is 11 and it’s a alkali metal. Chloride is produced when chlorine gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents.  Phosphate is produced by salt and phosphoric acid. Sulfate is produced by oxygen, sodium, and carbon.


Background Research

Powerade was originally made for giving you electrolytes and drinking powerade also helps give you less fatigue and muscle cramps. Powerade contains the ingredients water, high fructose corn syrup, salt, potassium citrate, phenylalanine, sucralose, sodium citrate, malic acid, potassium phosphate, vitamins b6, and vitamins b2. Powerade however contains harmful chemicals like Brominated vegetable oil also known as BVO, which is the same element used in flame retardants. Which has been linked to having many health and development problems. Bromine is also found in upholstered furniture and children’s products. The build up of bromine leads to fatty tissues. The chemical has also been linked to neurological impairment, reduced fertility, and developmental issues in the thyroid during puberty. Just recently as of this past week Powerade along with the Foods Administration has decided to get rid of Brominated vegetable oil. Food label for a 16 fluid ounce powerade. Calories 144. Calories from fat 0. Total fat 0 g 0%. Saturated fat 0 g 0%. Trans fat 0 g. Cholesterol. Sodium 108 mg 4%. Potassium 64 mg 2%. Total Carbohydrate 38 mg 13%. Dietary fiber, sugars 30 g, sugar alcohols. Protein 0 g Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, and Iron. Powerade isotonic sports drinks are designed to balance with your body fluids to give you fast hydration and energy when you need it the most. Powerade consists most of sodium and potassium your body loses the salts and sweat and the electrolytes in powerade replace them. Powerade provides your body with additional carbohydrates (sucrose and maltodextrin) to provide the muscles with energy your body needs when working out. Powerade is great for keeping the body hydrated unlike water powerade provides the body with energy and carbohydrates to keep you refurbished unlike water. Along with that it constantly keeps your muscles hydrated to keep you from getting cramps or muscles spasms. Nutritional information for 100ml powerade. Energy content 71KJ, 17Kcal. Protein 0g, Carbohydrate 3.9g, Of which sugars 3.9g, Fat 0g, Of which saturates 0g, Fibre 0g, Sodium 50mg, Potassium 12.5mg, Magnesium 0.6mg, Calcium 1.3mg. There are many different kinds of powerades and many different flavors out there of powerade has been a huge incorporation competing with gatorade for many years. The three different types of powerade include regular powerade, powerade zero which has 0 calories, and powerade ion4. The 8 different kinds of powerade for plain powerade include orange, fruit punch, mountain berry blast, grape, lemon lime, sour melon, white cherry, and strawberry lemonade. There are 4 different kinds of powerade ion4 are berry, orange, cherry, and melon. Then there are seven flavors for powerade zero which are mixed berry, grape, lemon lime, orange, fruit punch, strawberry, and chocolate.


Resources

Coca-Cola company manufactures
When and where powerade was first introduced
What powerade does to your body
History behind powerade
Flavors
Chemicals in powerade
What the substances do
Nutrition facts
Explaining how powerade benefits your body
Talks about Carbohydrates and Electrolytes
Official website of powerade
Talks about why you should use powerade
Talks about the four key electrolytes
Flavors
Background info on powerade
Talks about electrolytes in detail of what they do to the body
Talks about carbohydrates in detail
Tells when you should drink powerade to benefit your body the most
Talks about the reactions in powerade
Talks more about carbohydrates in detail

About the Author

Caeden Stidham is currently a junior right now attending Billings Senior High. He enjoys playing football and baseball he plays 1st and 3rd for legion baseball. Caeden enjoys spending time outdoors when he gets time to with sports he loves going fishing up on the Stillwater River, camping, and backpacking in the mountains to lakes in the Beartooths. Caeden plans on going to the University of Montana after high school or possibly go and work in oil rigs for a few years first. After college he would like to become a fish and game warden.

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