The Chemistry of Chia Seeds

Introduction

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Chia seeds are a very small seed that is a food enrichment. It comes from the herbaceous plant and belongs in the labiatae family. The seed is in the plantae kingdom. In this small seed it contains a high amount vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. I always have chia seeds in my water. I chose this topic because I always get asked what chia seeds are. I want to be able to explain what the seeds are and why I drink them everyday.

Composition of ...

Name

Chemical Formula

% Daily Value

Water

H2O

NA

Protein

RCH(NH2)COOH

31

Fat

NA

Carbohydrates

CH2O

15

Fiber

151

Calcium

Ca

67

Copper

Cu

69

Iron

Fe

45

Magnesium

Mg

90

Manganese

Mn

110

Potassium

K

20

Sodium

Na

< 1

Zinc

Zn

23

Vitamin A

C20H30O

NA

Thiamin (B1)

C12H17N4OS+

53

Riboflavin (B2)

C17H20N4O6

3

Niacin (B3)

C6H5NO2

43

Pyridoxine (B6)

C8H11NO3

5

Cobalamin (B12)

C63H88CoN14O14P

2

Vitamin C

C6H8O6

6

Vitamin E

C29H50O2

4

  • Caffeic Acid - C9H8O4

  • Lignin - C9H10O2,C10H12O3,C11H14O4

  • Myricetin - C15H10O8

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids - C60H92O6

  • Quercetin - C15H10O7


Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

Dietary Fiber

  • Also known as bulk

  • Includes parts of plant foods one’s body cannot digest or absorb

  • Soluble or insoluble

    • Soluble dissolves in water

      • In water forms a gel-like material

    • Insoluble does not dissolve in water

      • Promotes movement of material through your digestive system

  • Normalizes bowel movements

  • Helps maintain bowel health

  • Lowers cholesterol levels

  • Helps control blood sugar levels

  • Aids in achieving healthy weight

Manganese

  • Molecular formula: Mn+2

  • Formula name: Mn

  • Processes cholesterol, carbohydrates, and protein

  • Helps the body form connective tissue, bones, and blood clotting factors

  • Necessary for normal brain and nerve function

Chemistry's Role

Dietary fiber or roughage comes from a plant material. The fiber is composed of complex, non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose, dextrins, inulin, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, waxes, and oligosaccharides. Dietary fiber is not digestible in the small intestine because mammals do not produce enzymes capable of hydrolyzing them into constituent monomers. Because of not being digestible, the fiber pushes through our digestive system absorbing water along the way while also easing bowel movements. When they get to the colon they are still intact. This is where they are available for fermentation by the resident bacteria. The metabolites released by the bacteria in the colon are used by humans and other mammals to meet energy requirements.  Fiber does not contribute calories to one’s diet.


Manganese is a transitional metal that is steel-gray, hard, shiny, and very brittle. Manganese never occurs in a pure element form in nature. In pure form manganese cannot be bent, cut, or shaped. Because of not occurring in pure form by nature, manganese is always combined with other elements. Most common ores of manganese are pyrolusite, manganite, psilomelane, and rhodochrosite. The Usual method for producing pure manganese is to heat manganese dioxide (MnO2) with carbon or aluminum. When this reaction occurs it removes the oxygen and leaves the manganese.


Background Research

Chia seeds are very small seed. They are found in a group of annuals in the genera Salvia and Hyptis of the family Labiatae. This means that chia seeds naturally occur. When analyzed, protein, oil, fiber, ash, moisture, and amino acids are found. The seeds contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. When consumed chia is beneficial for heart disease, diabetes, and immune response disorders. The antioxidants helps protect consumers against adverse conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers.

Resources

http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfnr/2/5/9/index.html

Chemical composition

The type of plant chia belongs to

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfs/2014/241053/

The substances chia contains

http://authoritynutrition.com/11-proven-health-benefits-of-chia-seeds/

The percentage of what chia contains for twenty-eight grams

Antioxidants

http://www.pnas.org/content/90/17/7915.short

Antioxidants

http://www.chiaseed.com.ar/usossemilla_.php?iframe=ok&idioma=en

Hydrophilic properties

http://www.mychiaseeds.com/Articles/ChiaSeedHydration.html

Fiber- soluble and insoluble

http://www.healwithfood.org/nutrition-facts/chia-seeds-value.php

More in depth about the composition of chia seeds

http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/fiber/art-20043983

Dietary fiber

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-182-manganese.aspx?activeingredientid=182&

What chemical processes manganese is involved with in the body

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/manganese

Where manganese is found in the body

How manganese helps the body

http://advances.nutrition.org/content/2/2/151.full

More about dietary fiber

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/146935.php

More about dietary fiber

http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/L-P/Manganese.html

More about manganese

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03670244.1991.9991195

How chia seeds occur

About the Author
Channing Birkeland is a senior at Billings Senior High School. She takes part in being a student advocate. She enjoy spending her time with family and friends. After graduation she plans to furthering her education at BYU Idaho and major in being a neonatal nurse.
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