The Chemistry of Honey


I chose to do the chemistry of honey because I personally love honey. It is a sweet, sticky yellowish-brown fluid made by bees from collecting nectar from flowers. I like the texture of honey when i put it on food and it has a very sweet taste.

Composition of ...

    • Carbs: 82% fructose, glucose
    • Proteins and Amino Acids: proline
    • Vitamins, Minerals and Antioxidants : Vitamin B,riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B6
    • Other Minerals: acetic, butanoic, formic, citric, aromatic acids. Gluconic acid is the main acid present and is formed when glucose breaks down by glucose oxidase
    • sugar is one of the main ingredients in honey, as well as water
    • Sugar makes up about 95% of honey’s dry weight
    • Sucrose is 50% glucose and 50% fructose
  • glucose and fructose are known as monosaccharides ( they are the most basic form of carbohydrates, sugar is a type of carbohydrate, they are what gives us the most energy)

Main Chemicals, Compounds, Components

2 main ingredients

    • water- (H2O)hydrating

Sucrose- (C12 H22 O11)( half fructose- (C6H12O6)sustained energy, and half glucose- (C6H12O6) instant energy)

Chemistry's Role

Fructose and Glucose and both made in plants. When the plants absorb the sun’s energy they go through a process called photosynthesis and then produce these two sugars, humans then take them and put them in a factory(sugar beet factory) and continue to strip the plants down to pure sugar. Fructose and Glucose and simple sugars that can be combined to make more complex sugars such as Sucrose (vice versa, sucrose can be broken down into fructose and glucose). OR bees get nectar from the flowers that is about 80% water and then about 20% sugars. Enzymes the bees make turn the sucrose into fructose and glucose which produces a very watered down honey. The bees store this liquid in the hives where the water evaporates leaving only about 18% water. Humans then strip the hives of the honey and package it into bottles for us to use.

Background Research

Honey may be older than you think. The first signs of humans using honey dates back thousands of years, one of the evidence of humans harvesting honey is drawn on a rock wall in Valencia, Spain over 8,000 years ago. It is difficult to appreciate the organic abilities of the honey we use in today’s world. We are exposed to junk food, substitutes, and preservatives that make it easy for us to forget the power of natural food. Humans have eaten honey, bathed in it, used it to heals wounds and traded with it since history began. Archaeologists discovered honey comb in Egypt that had been buried with the pharaohs in their tombs, the honey was preserved and still edible. Honey is a wonderful, natural sweetener that we take for granted these days.


ingredients of honey

ingredients of honey

info about sucrose, fructose and glucose

benefits of honey

chemical composition of honey

the chemical make-up of fructose, glucose and sucrose, the chemical bonds

how it is made

the history of honey

About the Author

Kelsey Wanner is a senior at BSHS and decided to take chemistry her senior year. She is a health nut and loves working out. She has an attitude and is not ashamed of it. Kelsey also has a twin sister that doubles as her lab partner.